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  • Mannplanflybmiss_120408150815.pdf

    This report summarizes a study (by North American Aviation, Space Division) of Manned Interplanetary Flyby Missions to Venus and Mars during the period from 1975 to 1982. [The study was a broad but penetrating technical investigation of using a manned flight system for planetary exploration.] The results, along with previously known aspects of manned Mars and Venus flyby missions, vehicles, and systems, were integrated into total mission-system capable of performing a realistic and meaningful planetary exploration program. Manned Planetary Missions are feasible. Attractive multiplanet flyby missions can be performed by Saturn/Apollo systems. However, injected payload and mission requirements developed within the guidelines and assumptions of this study cannot be met with modified S-II or S-IV stages when used with the standard Saturn V Earth-launch vehicle. When using an Earth orbit assembly mode and an uprated Saturn Earth launch vehicle for application to manned planetary flyby missions, the launch vehicle should have a payload capability (2-stage to low Earth orbit) of 400,000 pounds or more for use with M(S)-IVB planetary injection stages. Manned planetary flyby missions provide a means of combining the favorable aspects of both manned and unmanned missions into a unique and highly effective planetary exploration mission-system capable of providing major significant inputs to the scientific and engineering questions concerning the interplanetary medium, our Sun, and our neighboring planets Venus and Mars.
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